Home > Staff > Academic > A Prof Muthama Muasya

Associate Professor Muthama Muasya

Phone: 021 650 3725 
Room No.: 3.18.2 (HW Pearson Building)








My career began in Kenya, where I was a Research Scientist at the National Museums of Kenya (1993-2008). I have a BSc and MPhil from Moi University (Kenya), PhD from University of Reading (UK), and postdoctoral stints at Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (UK), Rutgers University (USA) and KU Leuven (Belgium). I am an Associate Professor (since 2014) teaching courses in Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology and my research is predominantly on Angiosperm Systematics.


Ongoing research

i) Cyperaceae Systematics and evolution:

Cyperaceae is a cosmopolitan family with ~5500 species, in Southern Africa dominated by the tribes Cypereae, Schoeneae and Abildgaardieae. Together with collaborators in England (Prof Larridon, Dr Simpson), Belgium (Prof Goetghebeur, Dr Vrijdaghs), we have undertaken taxonomic & phylogenetic studies on the Cypereae. Significant contributions include revised taxonomy and floral ontogenetic studies.

On the Schoeneae, an austral temperate tribe, we have inferred phylogenetic relationships and biogeography, and revised the taxonomy of polyphyletic genera Costularia & Tetraria. These studies have involved collaboration at UCT (Prof T Verboom; postdoctoral fellow Dr T Elliott), Australia (Profs J Bruhl, K Wilson), England (Prof Larridon).

Genome evolution, especially polyploidy, is thought to influence speciation. Working with Prof P Bures (Czech Republic), we have screened representatives of the Cyperids, identifying several polyploidy events. The South African Schoenus clade have multiple ploidy levels, and these are associated with unique morphotypes.

ii) Wetland flora - floristic composition and biogeography patterns

Wetlands are unique habitats characterized by extended periods of waterlogging. Such habitats are occupied by plants that can tolerate inundation for extended periods or those bearing strategies to deal with inundation (e.g. ephemerals). In a heterogenous landscape as observed in South Africa, unrevealing patterns of wetland flora and drivers to the observed patterns is an important question. Working with Dr E Sieben (UKZN) we have mapped occurrence of plants in the wetlands and identified key parameters influencing the observed patterns. Further studies have investigated the use of wetland plants, especially papyrus in East African wetlands (in collaboration with Dr T Terer)

Among wetland plant lineages occurring in several continents, we have identified direction and timing of dispersal events. No single pattern is seen, with ‘out of Africa’ dispersal directly to Australasia (Isolepis) or via Eurasia (Limosella) or Northern temperate origin then dispersal to Australiasia and Africa (Callitrichae). This research, done in collaboration with Japanese postdoctoral researcher (Dr Y Ito) and co-workers, has also contributed to the taxonomy of several groups.

iii) Legumes: taxonomy, ecology & evolution

Legumes are a diverse lineage in the Cape Flora especially as post-fire weeds in the fynbos biome. Understanding patterns of occurrence of particular species has required research on the ecophysiology, community structures (including rhizobia association) and incorporated tools from ecology and evolution. This work has involved collaborators at UCT (Prof Stirton, Dr Chimphango), Stellenbosch (Dr Valentine), UK (Prof Sprent, Dr James) and cohorts of postgraduate students. Distinct legume assemblages occupy unique edaphic niches and utilize particular rhizobia types.

iv) Origin and evolution of the African savanna

The African savanna is characterized by C4 grasslands and woody assemblage frequently bearing spines. Using multidisciplinary approach, we have aspired to determine origin of unique traits associated with the savanna (spinesence, underground forests, elephant-foot tubers). These studies have involved collaborators in South Africa (Profs W Bond (UCT), M vdBank (UJ)), Canada (Prof J Davies), and UK (Drs O Maurin, P Wilkin).


Recent publication in peer refereed journal

See full list:;

  1. Elliott TL, Muasya AM. 2018. A taxonomic revision of Schoenus compar-Schoenus pictus and allies (Cyperaceae, tribe Schoeneae) with three new species described from South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 114: 303–315.
  2. Dludlu MN, Chimphango S, Stirton CH, Muasya AM. 2018. Differential Preference of Burkholderia and Mesorhizobium to pH and Soil Types in the Core Cape Subregion, South Africa. Genes 9 (1), 2. doi:10.3390/genes9010002.
  3. MacAlister D, Muasya AM, Chimphango SBM. 2018. Linking root traits to superior phosphorus uptake and utilisation efficiency in three Fabales in the Core Cape Subregion, South Africa. Functional Plant Biology,
  4. Sieben EJJ, Glen RP, Muasya AM. 2017. The sclerophyllous wetlands on quartzite substrates in South Africa: Floristic description, classification and explanatory environmental factors. South African Journal of Botany 113: 54–61.
  5. Sieben EJJ, Glen RP, Muasya AM. 2017. The wetland flora of South Africa: Occurrence patterns, frequency and dominance across a diverse landscape. Aquatic Botany
  6. Elliott TL, Muasya AM. 2017. Taxonomic realignment in the southern African Tetraria (Cyperaceae, tribe Schoeneae; Schoenus clade). South African Journal of Botany 112: 354–360.
  7. Dludlu MN, Chimphango S, Stirton CH, Muasya AM. 2017. Distinct edaphic habitats are occupied by discrete legume assemblages with unique indicator species in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. - Journal of Plant Ecology.
  8. Bello A, Stirton CH, Chimphango, SBM, Muasya AM. 2017. Taxonomic revision of African Psoralea pinnata species complex (Psoraleeae, Leguminosae). South African Journal of Botany 112: 128–179.
  9. Wangwasit K, Muasya AM, Chantaranothai P, Simpson DA. 2017. Taxonomy and phylogenetic position of Fimbristylis fusiformis, a new species of Cyperaceae from Thailand. Blumea 62: 47–62.
  10. Tshiila AA, Chimphango SBM, Viljoen J-A, Muasya AM. 2017. Two new species in the Ficinia indica complex (Cyperaceae, tribe Cypereae) from South Africa. Phytotaxa 295: 49–59.
  11. Ito Y, Tanaka N, Albach DC, Barfod AS, Oxelman B, Muasya AM. 2017. Molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant genus Limosella (Scrophulariaceae) with a particular focus on the origin of the Australasian L. curdieana. Journal of Plant Research 130: 107–116.
  12. Bauters K, Asselman P, Simpson DA, Muasya AM, Goetghebeur P, Larridon I. 2016. Phylogenetics, ancestral state reconstruction, and a new infrageneric classification of Scleria (Cyperaceae) based on three DNA markers. Taxon 65: 444-466.
  13. Maurin O, Muasya AM, Catalan P, Shongwe EZ, Viruel J, Wilkin P van der Bank M. 2016. Diversification into novel habitats in the Africa clade of Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae): erect habit and elephant’s foot tubers. BMC evolutionary biology 16 (238): 1-17.
  14. Charles-Dominique T, Davies TJ, Hempson GP, Bezeng BS, Daru BH, Kabongo RM, Maurin O, Muasya AM, van der Bank M, Bond WJ. 2016. Spiny plants, mammal browsers and the origin of African savannas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (38): E5572–E5579.
  15. Lemaire B, Chimphango S, Stirton C, Rafudeen S, Honnay O, Smets E, Chen W-M, Sprent J, James EK, Muasya AM. 2016. Biogeographical patterns of legume-nodulating Burkholderia spp.: from African fynbos to continental scales. Appl Environ Microbiol 82: 5099–5115.
  16. Sieben EJJ, Collins NB, Corry FTJ, Kotze DC, Job N, Muasya AM, Venter CE, Mtshali H, Zondo SA, Janks M, Pretorius L. 2016. The vegetation of grass lawn wetlands of floodplains and pans in semi-arid regions of South Africa: Description, classification and explanatory environmental factors. South African Journal of Botany 104: 215-224.
  17. Ito Y, Tanaka N, Murata J, García-Murillo P, Muasya AM. 2016. A new delimitation of the Afro-Eurasian plant genus Althenia to include its Australasian relative, Lepilaena (Potamogetonaceae) – Evidence from DNA and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 98: 261–270
  18. Lemaire B, Van Cauwenberghe J, Verstraete B, Chimphango S, Stirton C, Honnay O, · Smets E,· Sprent J, James EK, Muasya AM. 2016. Characterization of the papilionoid–Burkholderia interaction in the Fynbos biome: The diversity and distribution of beta-rhizobia nodulating Podalyria calyptrata (Fabaceae, Podalyrieae). Systematic and Applied microbiology 39: 41–48.
  19. Stirton CH, Muasya AM. 2016. Seven new species and notes on the genus Aspalathus (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae). South African Journal of Botany 104: 35-46.
  20. Ito Y, Viljoen J-A, Tanaka N, Yano O, Muasya AM. 2016. Phylogeny of Isolepis (Cyperaceae) revisited: non-monophyletic nature of I. fluitans sensu lato and resurrection of I. lenticularis. Plant Systematics and Evolution 302: 231–238.
  21. Ito Y, Ohi-Toma T, Tanaka N, Murata J, Muasya AM. 2015. Phylogeny of Ruppia (Ruppiaceae) Revisited: Molecular and Morphological Evidence for a New Species from Western Cape, South Africa. Systematic Botany 40 (4): 942–949.
  22. Muasya AM, Vollesen K. 2015. Cyperus volkielloides (Cyperaceae), a new ephemeral species from Tanzania. Kew Bulletin 70 (4), 1-4
  23. Lemaire B, Van Cauwenberghe J, Chimphango S, Stirton C, Honnay O, E Smets, Muasya AM. 2015. Recombination and horizontal transfer of nodulation and ACC deaminase (acdS) genes within Alpha-and Betaproteobacteria nodulating legumes of the Cape Fynbos biome. FEMS microbiology ecology 91 (11), fiv118.
  24. Maistry PM, Muasya AM, Valentine AJ, Zdanow L & Chimphango SBM. 2015. Closely related allopatric Podalyria species from the Core Cape Subregion differ in their mechanisms for acquisition of phosphorus, growth and ecological niche. Journal of Plant Ecology doi:10.1093/jpe/rtv061
  25. Bello A, Daru BH., Stirton CH, Chimphango SBM, van der Bank M, O Maurin & Muasya AM. 2015. DNA barcodes reveal microevolutionary signals in fire response trait in two legume genera. AoB PLANTS 7: plv124
  26. García-Madrid AS, Muasya AM, Álvarez I, Cantó P & Molina JA. 2015. Towards resolving phylogenetic relationships in the Ficinia clade and description of the new genus Afroscirpoides (Cypereae, Cyperaceae). Taxon 64: 688-702.
  27. Wilkin P & Muasya AM. 2015. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa PhytoKeys 48: 51–72.
  28. Terer T, Muasya AM & Triest L. 2015. Strong isolation by distance revealed among Cyperus papyrus populations in the Rift Valley lakes, Lake Victoria, and isolated wetlands of Kenya. Aquatic Botany 121: 57-66
  29. Bello A, Stirton CH & SBM Chimphango, Muasya AM. 2015. Psoralea diturnerae and P. vanberkelae (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae): two new species restricted to the Core Cape Region of South Africa. PhytoKeys 44: 97–107
  30. Maistry PM, Muasya AM, Valentine AJ & Chimphango SBM. 2015. Balanced allocation of organic acids and biomass for phosphorus and nitrogen demand in the fynbos legume Podalyria calyptrata. Journal of plant physiology 174, 16-25
  31. Lemaire B, Dlodlo O, Chimphango S, Stirton C, Schrire B, Boatwright JS, Honnay O, Smets E, Sprent J, James EK, Muasya AM. 2015. Symbiotic diversity, specificity and distribution of rhizobia in native legumes of the core Cape Subregion (South Africa). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 91: 1–17.
  32. Dludlu MN, Muasya AM, Chimphango SBM, & Stirton CH. 2015. Taxonomy of the southern African Psoralea aphylla complex (Psoraleeae, Leguminosae). South African Journal of Botany 97: 77-100.
  33. Parnell JAN, Pilla F, Simpson D, Van Welzen PC, Chayamarit K, Chantaranothai P, Boyce PC, Bygrave P, Byrne C, Chen S, Muasya AM. 2015. A re-examination of the life and work of A.F.G. Kerr and of his colleagues and friends. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany), 43: 111-13.
  34. Maistry PM, Muasya AM, Valentine AJ, & Chimphango SBM. 2015. Increasing nitrogen supply stimulates phosphorus acquisition mechanisms in the fynbos species Aspalathus linearis. Functional Plant Biology 42 (1), 52-62.
  35. Yessoufou K, Daru BH & Muasya AM. 2015. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Molecular Ecology Resources 15: 405–413.
  36. Maurin O, Davies TJ, Burrows JE, Daru BH, Yessoufou K, Muasya AM, Van der Bank M & Bond WJ. 2014. Savanna fire and the origins of the “underground forests” of Africa. New Phytologist 204: 201–214.
  37. Bouchenak-Khelladi Y, Muasya AM & Linder HP. 2014. A revised evolutionary history of Poales: origins and diversification. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 4–16.
  38. Bauters K, Larridon I, Reynders M, Asselman P, Vrijdaghs A, Muasya AM, Simpson DA, & Goetghebeur P. 2014. A new classification for Lipocarpha and Volkiella as infrageneric taxa of Cyperus s.l. (Cypereae, Cyperoideae, Cyperaceae): insights from species tree reconstruction supplemented with morphological and floral developmental data. Phytotaxa 166 (1): 001–032.
  39. Terer T, Muasya AM, Higgins S, Gaudet JJ & Triest L. 2014. Importance of seedling recruitment for regeneration and maintaining genetic diversity of Cyperus papyrus during drawdown in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Aquatic Botany 116: 93–102.
  40. Muasya AM, Viljoen J-A, Dludlu MN & Sebsebe Demissew. 2014. Phylogenetic position of Cyperus clandestinus (Cypereae, Cyperaceae) clarified by morphological and molecular evidence. Nordic Journal of Botany 32: 106–114.
  41. Viljoen J-A, Muasya AM, Barrett RL, Bruhl JJ, Gibbs AK, Slingsby JA, Wilson KL & Verboom GA. 2013. Radiation and repeated transoceanic dispersal of Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) through the southern hemisphere. American Journal of Botany 100 (12): 2494-2508
  42. Dludlu MN, Stirton CH, Chimphango SBM, Bello A & Muasya AM. 2013. Phylogenetic position of the southern African members of the tribe Psoraleeae based on molecular and morphological data South African Journal of Botany 89: 150–155.
  43. Larridon I, Bauters K, Reynders M, Huygh W, Muasya AM, Simpson DA, & Goetghebeur P. 2013. Towards a new classification of the giant paraphyletic genus Cyperus (Cyperaceae): phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in C4 Cyperus. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 106–126.
  44. Curtis OE, Stirton CH, & Muasya AM. 2013. A conservation and floristic assessment of poorly known species rich quartz-silcrete outcrops within Rûens Shale Renosterveld (Overberg, Western Cape), with taxonomic descriptions of five new species. South African Journal of Botany 87: 99–111.
  45. Stirton CH, Muasya AM & Vlok J. 2012. Psoralea karooensis (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae), a new species from the Klein Karoo region of South Africa. Phytokeys 17: 19–23.
  46. Yano O, Ikeda H, Watson M F, Rajbhandari K R, Jin X-F, Hoshino T, Muasya AM & Ohba H. 2012. Phylogenetic position of the Himalayan genus Erioscirpus (Cyperaceae) inferred from DNA sequence data. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 170: 1–11.
  47. Reynders M, Vrijdaghs A, Larridon I, Huygh W, Leroux O, Muasya AM & Goetghebeur P. 2012. Gynoecial anatomy and development in Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae, Poales): congenital fusion of carpels facilitates evolutionary modifications in pistil structure. Plant Ecology and Evolution 145: 96–125.
  48. Muasya AM, Viljoen J-A, Stirton CH & C Helme NA. 2012. Two new leafless species of Ficinia (Cypereae, Cyperaceae) from the Greater Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 79: 96–101.
  49. Terer T, Muasya AM & Triest L. 2012. Effects of harvesting Cyperus papyrus in undisturbed wetlands, Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 680: 135–148.
  50. Muasya AM, Reynders M, Goetghebeur P, Simpson D A & Vrijdaghs A. 2012. Dracoscirpoides (Cyperaceae) — a new genus from Southern Africa, its taxonomy and floral ontogeny. South African Journal of Botany 78: 104–115.
  51. Gehrke B, Vrijdaghs A, Smets E, Muasya AM. 2012. Unisexual flowers as a robust synapomorphy in Cariceae (Cyperaceae)? Evidence for bisexual flowers in Schoenoxiphium. South African Journal of Botany 78: 150–158.
  52. Terer T, Muasya AM, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Ndiritu GG & Triest L. 2012. Integrating local ecological knowledge and management practices of an isolated semi-arid papyrus swamp (Loboi, Kenya) into a wider conservation framework. Journal of Environmental Management 93: 71–84.
  53. Larridon I, Reynders M, Huygh W, Bauters K, Vrijdaghs A, Leroux O, Muasya AM, Simpson DA, & Goetghebeur P. 2011. Taxonomic changes in C3 Cyperus (Cyperaceae) supported by molecular data, morphology, embryography, ontogeny and anatomy. Plant Ecology and Evolution 144: 327–356.
  54. Muasya AM, Larridon I, Reynders M, Huygh W, Goetghebeur P, Cable S, Simpson DA & Gehrke B. 2011. The Cyperaceae in Madagascar show high diversification in high altitude forest and wetland habitats. Plant Ecology and Evolution 144: 357–362.
  55. Sievers C & Muasya AM. 2011, Identification of the sedge Cladium mariscus subsp. jamaicense and its possible use in the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu, KwaZulu-Natal. Southern African Humanities 23: 77–86.
  56. Larridon I, Reynders M, Huygh W, Bauters K, Van de putte K, Muasya AM, Boeckx P, Simpson DA, Vrijdaghs A & Goetghebeur P. 2011. Affinities in C3 Cyperus (Cyperaceae) revealed using molecular phylogenetic data and carbon isotope analysis. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 167: 19–46.
  57. Stirton CH, Clark VR, Barker NP & Muasya AM. 2011. Psoralea margaretiflora (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae): A new species from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Phytokeys 5: 31–38.
  58. Reynders M, Huygh W, Larridon I, Muasya AM, Govaerts R, Simpson DA & Goetghebeur P. 2011. Nomenclature and typification of generic and subdivisional names in the Cyperus clade (Cyperaceae): 3. Subdivisional names in satellite genera. Taxon 60: 885–895.
  59. Larridon I., Reynders M., Huygh W., Muasya A.M., Govaerts R., Simpson D.A. & Goetghebeur P. 2011. Nomenclature and typification of generic and subdivisional names in the Cyperus clade (Cyperaceae): 2. Subdivisional names in Cyperus. Taxon 60: 868–884.
  60. Davies TJ, Smith GF, Bellstedt DU, Boatwright JS, Bytebier B, Cowling RM, Forest Fl, Harmon LJ, Muasya AM, Schrire BD, Steenkamp Y, van der Bank M & Savolainen V. 2011. Extinction Risk and Diversification Are Linked in a Plant Biodiversity Hotspot. PLoS Biology 9, e1000620.
  61. Stirton CH &Muasya AM. 2011. Aspalathus abbottii (Fabaceae: Crotalarieae), a new species from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 77: 675-679.
  62. Ngugi GW, Newton LE & Muasya AM. 2011. The Contribution of Forest Products to Dryland Household Economy: The case of Kiang’ombe hill forest, Kenya. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 19: 163-180.
  63. Vrijdaghs A, Reynders M, Muasya AM, Larridon I, Goetghebeur P & Smets EF. 2011. Morphology and development of spikelets and flowers in Cyperus and Pycreus (Cyperaceae). Plant Ecology and Evolution 144: 44-63.
  64. Muasya AM, Viljoen J & Stirton CH. 2011. Isolepis namaquana (Cypereae, Cyperaceae), a new endemic species from the winter rainfall area of South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 77: 55-58.
  65. Warren BH, Bakker FT, Bellstedt DU, Bytebier B, ClaSZen-Bockhoff R, Dreyer LL, Edwards D, Forest F Galley C, Hardy CR Linder HP, Muasya AM, Mummenhoff K, Oberlander KC, Quint M, Richardson JE, Savolainen V, Schrire BD, van der Niet T, Verboom GA, Yesson C & Hawkins JA. 2011. Consistent phenological shifts in the making of a biodiversity hotspot: the Cape flora. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:39.
  66. Huygh W., Larridon I., Reynders M., Muasya A.M., Govaerts R., Simpson D .A. & Goetghebeur P. 2010. Nomenclature and typification of names of genera and subdivisions of genera in Cypereae (Cyperaceae): 1. Names of genera in the Cyperus clade. Taxon 59: 1883–1890.
  67. Vrijdaghs A., Reynders M., Larridon I., Muasya A.M., Smets E., Goetghebeur P. 2010. Spikelet structure and development in Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae): a monopodial general model based on ontogenetic evidence. Annals of Botany 105: 555–571.
  68. Gehrke B., Martín-Bravo S., Muasya A.M., & Luceño M. 2010. Monophyly, phylogenetic position and the role of hybridization in Schoenoxiphium Nees (Cariceae, Cyperaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 56: 380-392.
  69. Muasya A.M., Musili P.M., Vrijdaghs A. 2010. Kyllinga mbitheana (Cyperaceae)—description, floral ontogeny and pollen micromorphology of a new species from Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 65–75.
  70. Wilkin P., Burrows J., Burrows S., Muasya A.M., van Wyk E. 2010. A critically endangered new species of yam (Dioscorea strydomiana Wilkin, Dioscoreaceae) from Mpumalanga, South Africa. Kew Bulletin 65: 421–433.
  71. Muasya A.M., de Lange P. 2010. Ficinia spiralis (Cyperaceae) a new genus and combination for Desmoschoenus spiralis. New Zealand Journal of Botany 48: 31-39.
  72. Sieben E.J.J., Morris C.D., Kotze D.C., Muasya A.M. 2010. Changes in plant form and function across altitudinal and wetness gradients in the wetlands of the Maloti-Drakensberg, South Africa. Plant Ecology 207: 107-119.
  73. Moore G., Smith G.F., Figueiredo E., Demissew S., Lewis G., Schrire B., Rico L. , van Wyk B., Irtifaq Ali S., Ameka G. K., Atahuachi M., Bandyopadhyay S., BarkerN., Beentje H., Bruneau A., Bytebier B., Craven L., Crisp M., Cunningham A., Dold T., Fagg C., Fortuna A.N., Fortunato R. H., Friis I., Garcia F., Glazewski J.1, Grobler A., Hall M., Herendeen P., Hughes C., Huntley B. J., Kalema J., Kativu S., Klitgaard B., Knees S., Kwembeya E., Lakshminarasimhan P., Landrum L., Linder P., Luckow M., Mackinder B., van der Maesen J., Miller A. G., Moll E., Muasya A.M., Mwachala G., Neale S., Nee M. H., Pathak M. K., Predeep S. V., Sanjappa M., Smith P., Srivastava S. K., Stefano R. D., Stirton C., Timberlake J., Torke B. M., Varma S. K., Wieringa J., Wojciechowski M. 2010. Acacia, the 2011 Nomenclature Section in Melbourne, and beyond. Taxon 59: 1188–1195.
  74. Muasya A.M., Harvey H., Cheek M., Tah K., Simpson D.A. 2010. Coleochloa domensis (Cyperaceae), a new epiphytic species from Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 65: 323–325.